Overdose Deaths Among Women Soaring Across All Drug Types
WILTON — Middle-aged women are overdosing in record numbers, highlighting the need for more treatment programs for women as well as increased awareness about the risks of drug use.
Women represent approximately 40 percent of drug users in America. According to a 2019 report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the rate of drug overdose fatalities among middle-aged women between the ages of 30 and 64 years old rose by 260 percent, from 6.7 deaths per 100,000 population in 1999 to 24.3 deaths in 2017.
Kaiser Family Foundation data for 2017 shows that in Connecticut, women represent 238 of the 955 drug overdose deaths reported, up from 229 out of 855 a year earlier and far exceeding the 58 out of 216 overdose deaths reported in 2009.
The number of overdose deaths involving benzodiazepines, heroin, cocaine, and synthetic opioids, such as fentanyl, all increased during this time.
During the same 18-year period, overdose deaths involving any opioids skyrocketed by 492 percent among women, from 2.6 fatalities per 100,000 population in 1999 to 15.5 fatalities in 2017.
Overdose fatalities involving benzodiazepines, such as Xanax, increased even more considerably. The benzodiazepine mortality rate rose by 830 percent, from 0.54 per 100,000 population in 1999 to 5.02 in 2017.
The CDC notes that women aged 25 to 54 face greater odds of an emergency room visit after misusing prescription opioids. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, women more commonly use prescription opioids and benzodiazepines to treat anxiety symptoms than their male counterparts.
Aside from their higher risk of experiencing anxiety symptoms, other gender-specific barriers can complicate women’s recovery from drug addiction. Female drug users are more likely to develop HIV and encounter intimate partner violence linked to their use.
For those already struggling with addiction, an HIV positive diagnosis can contribute to a greater sense of stigma — even within the recovery community.
This added stress can cause women living with HIV to feel isolated and hopeless, deterring many from seeking addiction treatment.
Gender norms similarly contribute to a heightened sense of shame among addicted women. Women with substance use disorders may experience greater stigma if they do not fit the mold of the “perfect” caretaker.
The pressures of marriage and motherhood cause many women to feel guilty for taking time to address their own health and self-care, discouraging many from pursuing treatment.
According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse (drugabuse.gov), scientists who study substance use have discovered that women who use drugs can have issues related to hormones, menstrual cycle, fertility, pregnancy, breastfeeding, and menopause.
In addition, women themselves describe unique reasons for using drugs, including controlling weight, fighting exhaustion, coping with pain, and attempts to self-treat mental health problems.
The agency reports that according to a range of scientific studies:
*Women often use substances differently than men, such as using smaller amounts of certain drugs for less time before they become addicted;
*Women can respond to substances differently. For example, they may have more drug cravings and may be more likely to relapse after treatment;
*Sex hormones can make women more sensitive than men to the effects of some drugs;
*Women who use drugs may also experience more physical effects on their heart and blood vessels;
*Brain changes in women who use drugs can be different from those in men;
*Women may be more likely to go to the emergency room or die from overdose or other effects of certain substances;
*Women who are victims of domestic violence are at increased risk of substance use;
*Divorce, loss of child custody, or the death of a partner or child can trigger women’s substance use or other mental health disorders;
*Women who use certain substances may be more likely to have panic attacks, anxiety, or depression.
“The public needs to recognize that addiction doesn’t discriminate. The opioid crisis has impacted countless Americans, but it’s important to remember that other types of drugs can also compromise well-being,” says Amy Sedgwick, director of clinical operations at Mountainside. “In light of the growing number of drug overdoses among women, treatment centers should make every effort to empower female clients and create a welcoming environment suited to their needs.”
Learn more about Mountainside at mountainside.com
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