MATISSE: PAINTER AS SCULPTOR AT BALTIMORE MUSEUM OF ART
MATISSE: PAINTER AS SCULPTOR AT BALTIMORE MUSEUM OF ART
By Stephen May
BALTIMORE, MD. â Revered, along with Picasso, as a great pioneer of Modern art, Henri Matisse utilized radical innovations in his influential paintings and sculptures. His mastery of painted works â and cutouts â is well known. A new exhibition at the Baltimore Museum of Art (BMA) confirms his extraordinary gifts as creator of three-dimensional objects.
In works of all kinds, Matisse (1869â1954) pushed the medium beyond the ordinary, celebrating the joie de vivre, and in the process helped put avant-garde art on the map. In contrast to many of his contemporaries, whose subjects often reflected the anxiety, alienation and random violence of modern life, Matisseâs essential subject was the joy of life, reflected in his earliest Fauve period paintings and sculptures, created around the turn of the century, to the last cutouts produced just before his death.
âMatisse: Painter as Sculptor,â the first Matisse sculpture exhibition in more than two decades, was organized by the Dallas Museum of Art and the Nasher Sculpture Center (where it opened in January), the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art and the BMA, where it is on view through February 3.
This fascinating exhibition features more than 160 sculptures, paintings, drawings and archival photographs that underscore the artistâs inventiveness, the dialogue between his two- and three-dimensional works and his contributions to the evolution of Modern art.
Drawing on its own rich holdings, the BMA exhibition includes complementary works by such contemporary artists as Constantin Brancusi, Paul Cezanne, Alberto Giacometti, Pablo Picasso and Auguste Rodin that place Matisseâs sculpture in context. As BMA director Doreen Bolger declared, âThis is a once-in-a-lifetime chance to see Matisseâs genius represented in bronze, on canvas and on paper with works from around the world.â
Born in northern France, Matisse studied law at the University of Paris, but he said he âhad no desire to visit any of the great museums, or even the annual salons of painting.â At the age of 20, however, bored by clerking in a law firm and while recuperating from an attack of appendicitis, he began fiddling around with painting and found his calling.
After four years of academic training in Paris with Adolphe William Bouguereau at the Academie Julian and with Gustave Moreau at the Ãcole des Beaux-Arts, he began painting with a dark, Old Masters palette. Soon he converted to brighter, even violent hues and distorted compositions that made him a leader among the more adventurous young painters in the city. He and his fellow Fauvists (âwild beastsâ), such as Derain, Roualt and Vlaminck, shocked the public with their shrill colors and unconventional shapes.
He married in 1898 and eventually had two boys, but struggled for a decade before earning a comfortable income. His first significant sale â the brightly painted âWoman With the Hat,â 1905 â was to the family of American expatriate/salon hostess Gertrude Stein. As critic Clement Greenberg once wrote of Matisse, âLike Picasso, he had to wait until the boom in Modern art in the 1920s to become a rich man.â
Before 1945, much of his work was bought by Germans, Russians and Americans. Hans Hofmann, the German-born painter and teacher, promoted Matisseâs art in the United States, and Dr Albert Barnes was a substantial collector and advocate. In 1933, Matisse visited the Barnes Foundation in Merion, Penn., to supervise installation of his celebrated mural, âThe Dance.â The most important collectors of Matisse sculptures were Claribel and Etta Cone; the Cone collection at the BMA has been a rich source for Matisse aficionados and scholars for years.
Matisse created many more paintings than sculptures, once saying that for him sculpture was âa break from painting.â As Steven Nash, director of the Nasher Center, notes in the catalog, âHis total output in sculpture was just over 80 works, and 75 percent of it dates from the first half of his career.â While he denigrated his sculptural skills, Matisse had a special genius in the medium. It shines through in this comprehensive, rewarding exhibition.
Indeed, his work in this medium ranks him among the greatest sculptors of the Twentieth Century. There is ample evidence of play back and forth between his work in the two mediums. âI took up sculpture because what interested me in painting was a clarification of my ideas,â he declared. âIt was done for the purpose of organization, to put order into my feelings and to find a style to suit me. When I found it in sculpture, it helped me in my painting.â
Since he tackled the same subjects â primarily, the female nude â in both mediums, inevitably one fed the other. âWhile the best of Matisseâs sculptures set standards for Modernist figuration, the dialogue between painting and sculpture within his work is as important, if not more important, than the excellence of any individual piece,â art historian Karen Wilkin has observed. Among other things, Matisse seems to have been intrigued by the materiality of sculpture, the volume, depth and weight that he could not find in painting.
As Wilkin says, Matisseâs âwork abounds in contradictions, and his sculpture, no less than his painting or drawing, embodies the tensions that define his art: between sensuality and discipline; between innovation and attachment to the past; between authority and anxiety.â
âMatisse: Painter as Sculptorâ is organized thematically around a nucleus of more than 60 of the artistâs sculptural masterworks, which are juxtaposed with closely related works in paintings, on paper and photographs of him in his studio. These integrated groupings explore how Matisseâs drawings may have developed out of sculptures and how sculptures may have influenced his paintings, while documenting the evolution of his sculptural concepts and complex creative process.
Matisse was already an accomplished painter in 1899 when he began attending evening clay modeling and sculpture classes at a Parisian communal school, where he produced an innovative version of a graphic Antoine-Louis Barye sculpture of animals in mortal combat. Early works are displayed in an atelierlike setting with large reproductions of photographs of Matisse at work.
One of his first successes, âMadeline I,â 1901, utilized a smooth surface to emphasize the sinuous femininity of the subject. In the study drawing for this work, Matisse experimented with raising and crossing the womanâs arms, before shortening them in the sculpture.
A number of recognizable sculptural motifs, especially lounging and standing figures, first appeared in an idyllic setting in his 1905â1906 Fauve canvas, âLe Bonheur de vivre,â and are hinted at in the oil sketch that preceded it, on view in the exhibition. As BMA curator Oliver Shell writes in the catalog, this âArcadian landscapeâ¦[contains] not only the early expression of figural poses he would explore in major sculpturesâ¦, but also an expression of Matisseâs lifelong fascination with luxuriant gestures of self-display and two-sided viewing relationships.â
In 1907, Matisse reworked the classical nymph theme in âReclining Nude (Aurora),â depicting a voluptuous, reclining female nude, and in a painting, âBlue Nude: Memory of Biskra.â
The exaggerated distortion and elongated bodies in both works suggest dynamic relationships among his sculptures and paintings â and challenged aesthetic perceptions of contemporary viewers.
Like many of his contemporaries, Matisse was fascinated by the discovery of African art around the turn of the Twentieth Century, incorporating it into his work. Following a trip to North Africa in 1906, for example, he adapted figural distortions of African sculpture in âStanding Nude,â based on an exaggerated view of his 12-year-old daughter, Marguerite. A plaster cast of this work, along with props in his studio, were included in âStill Life with Plaster Figure (Nature morte: a la statuette),â a 1906 painting.
That same year he employed a similar strategy in incorporating two sculptural works in a painting, âStill Life with Geranium,â in which âthe sculptures serve to animate the scene while retaining both the status of sculpted objects and of pure medium: crudely applied paint, drawn lines and color,â writes Shell.
In âTwo Negresses,â 1907â1908, he translated a photograph of two young African women facing each other, each with an arm around the otherâs neck, into a chunky, compelling sculpture. âWhen I wanted to get rid of all influences that prevented me from seeing nature from my own personal view,â Matisse explained, âI copied photographs.â âTwo Negressesâ exemplifies Dallas Museum curator Dorothy Kosinskiâs comment that âMatisseâs figures are never in flux; on the contrary, they are grounded, constructed with the thinking of an architect.â
As he did in his paintings and drawings, Matisse repeatedly explored variations and alternatives to certain motifs and poses in his sculptures. The four bronze versions of âThe Back,â created between 1909 and 1930, for instance, while not initially conceived as a coherent series, represent a focus on the theme of a nude female leaning against a wall, viewed from behind. The compositions evolve from the naturalistic rendering in âThe Back I,â 1909, through increasingly simplified and clarified versions to the starkly pared-down, columnar figure in âThe Back IV,â 1930.
Throughout his career, Matisse explored joyful, exuberant dance as a theme, employing an S-shaped, curved line â called an arabesque â to convey the dynamic movement of dancers. In âThe Serpentine,â 1909, a nude stands frontally with legs crossed as she leans on a phallic balustrade. It connects with Matisseâs âDanceâ paintings of this period, as well as his abstract gouache, âAcrobatic Dancer,â of 1949.
For seven years, starting in 1922, Matisse worked on âLarge Seated Nude,â (1922â1929), one of his biggest and most ambitious freestanding sculptures. Predicated on poses by a young dancer, it offers a provocative, sensuous view of a grand female body.
It was preceded by a 1906 sketch, âLarge Nude,â and followed by the familiar 1935 painting, âLarge Reclining Nude/The Pink Nude,â which repeats the S-shaped arrangement, albeit of only one arm, of the earlier, three-dimensional piece.
The serpentine form in âBlue Nude I,â a 1952 cutout, offers a more abstract version of the pose. âThe limbs of the nude, intertwined in a self-contained crouching pose, are beginning to unfold,â notes BMA curator Jay McKean Fisher.
Matisse first used paper cutouts to prepare large compositions, such as âThe Dance,â 1930â1933. He soon treated them as independent works and continued to pursue the genre for the rest of his career.
Confined to a wheelchair after being diagnosed with cancer in 1941, and confined to his bed in his last years, Matisse occupied himself increasingly with decoupage. He eventually used shapes he scissored from heavy paper painted with gouache by studio assistants and assembled them in varied compositions on canvas surfaces. âPaper cutouts allow me to draw in color,â he observed. The show concludes with examples of his cutouts, demonstrating how he turned sculptural concepts into brilliantly hued works on paper.
Although Matisse was more prolific and famous for his paintings, his sculptural work was outstanding and an influential element in the flourishing of the avant-garde. Both mediums made him internationally popular in this lifetime, acclaimed by art critics, collectors, younger artists and the general public.
Matisseâs sculptural achievements, observes Nash in the catalog, are grounded in âits revision and extension with daring modeling and anatomical reinvention, deeply autobiographical metaphorical meanings and a new concept of the object as object rather than as imageâ¦.â Suggesting that Matisse âcontribute[d] significantly to the development of modern sculpture,â Nash concludes that âWe must understand the achievement of this other Matisse if we are to appreciate more fully the complexity of his artistic personality.â
The 296-page illustrated exhibition catalog, co-published by the Baltimore Museum, Dallas Museum, Nasher Sculpture Center and Yale University Press, is priced at $60. It contains enlightening chapters by Kosinski, Fisher and Nash, plus essays by Baltimore conservator Ann Boulton and Shell.
The Baltimore Museum of Art is on 10 North Museum Drive. For information, 443-573-1700 or www.artbma.org
âMatisse: Painter As Sculptorâ At Baltimore Museum Of Art
âMatisse: Painter As Sculptorâ
3 â Steichen.jpg â
This 1909 photograph by Edward Steichen of Matisse viewing a plaster cast of âThe Serpentineâ illustrates the delicate lines and bold composition of the piece. Archives Matisse, Paris.
5 â Blue Nude 1.jpg â
In one of his culminating cutouts, the serpentine form of âBlue Nude I,â 1952, reflects a common Matisse motif. He declared that âcutting straight into color reminds me of the direct carving of the sculptor.â Foundation Beyeler, Riehen/Basel.
6 â Large Seated Nude.jpg â
Measuring more than 30 inches in height, Matisseâs bronze âLarge Seated Nude,â 1922â1929 (cast 1930), represents a culmination of the artistâs long search for just the right pose for his monumental nudes. It is one of 18 Matisse sculptures in the Cone collection formed by Dr Claribel Cone and Miss Etta Cone of Baltimore, Md. Baltimore Museum of Art.
8 sfmoma Madeleine 1.jpg â 12 â Study for Madeline 1.jpg â
sculpture on left, drawing in right.
Sculpted in 1901, Matisseâs âMadeleine I,â from the BMA collection, features the arabesque line he came to employ in a number of subsequent sculptures. The âStudy for Madeline I,â 1901, reflects Matisseâs struggle to determine how to depict the arms of the figure in the eventual sculpture. The Museum of Modern Art.
15 â The Back 1.jpg â 17 â The Back 3.jpg â 18 â The Back 4.jpg â
3 images side by side must run Left to Right 15,17,18 â one caption under the three images
In this first of what turned out to be a series of monumental bronzes, âThe Back I,â left, 1909, Matisse offered a high relief, expressive view from behind of a nude woman pressed against a wall. The artist continued softening the original S-curve as he pared down the image to geometric essentials in âThe Back III,â center, 1916â17. In âThe Back IV,â right, 1930, the culminating iteration on the theme, âMatisse reduced the figure to three massive vertical columns,â in the words of Nasher Sculpture Center curator Jed Morse. Franklin D. Murphy Sculpture Garden, University of California, Los Angeles. âRobert Wedermeyer photos
22 venus.jpg â
In two bronze versions of the goddess of beauty, âVenus in a Shell Iâ and âVenus in a Shell II,â both 1930, Matisse created a curvy, seated nude with arms above her head. This is the smoother, less angular first version of the two, from the Cone collection, The Baltimore Museum of Art.
1 â Acrobatic Dancer.jpg â
This delicate gouache on paper, cut and pasted, âAcrobatic Dancer,â 1949, reflects Matisseâs delicate touch with cutouts and his interest in the dance and acrobats. Pierre and Maria-Gaetana Matisse Foundation collection.
2 â The Serpentine.jpg â
Although âThe Serpentine,â 1909 (cast 1930) shows a figure at rest, its arabesque lines suggest the rhythmical movements of dance, a subject close to Matisseâs heart. The Baltimore Museum of Art.
4 â Oil Sketch Joy of Life.jpg â
This oil sketch for âThe Joy of Life (Le bonheur de vivre),â 1905â1906, presaged Matisseâs interest in sculptural figures. The finished painting caused a stir, solidifying the artistâs standing as leader of young Modernists. San Francisco Museum of Modern Art.
7 â Large Nude.jpg â
This striking, angular lithograph, âLarge Nude,â 1906, anticipates the pose of Matisseâs celebrated sculpture, âLarge Seated Nude,â created in the 1920s. The Cone collection, Baltimore Museum of Art.
8 â Pink Nude.jpg â
The familiar S-shaped arrangement of arms, bold, sensuous pose and vivid patterning make âLarge Reclining Nude/The Pink Nude,â 1935, one of Matisseâs most famous paintings. Resonating with a number of his sculptures, this 26-by-36Â½-inch oil on canvas is from the Baltimore Museumâs Cone collection.
9 â Still Life with a Geranium â
The insertion of two sculptural figures around the central flowerpot in âStill Life with a Geranium,â 1906, represents the first time Matisse used such objects to animate his paintings. The Art Institute of Chicago.
10 â Two Negresses.jpg â
âTwo Negresses,â a 1907â1908 bronze, is based on a photograph of two Tuareg girls in a French ethnographic magazine. Reflecting the influence of African art, Matisse simplified and exaggerated the figures. Raymond and Patsy Nasher collection, Dallas. âDavid Heald photo
13 â Still Life with Plastâ¦ -
In âStill Life with Plaster Figure,â a 1906 oil on canvas, Matisse inserted a plaster cast of âStanding Nude,â 1906, among various props, surrounded by artworks in his studio. Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, Conn.
14a â Reclining Nude (Aurora) â
These are overlapped laser-screened computer models of two casts of Matisseâs âReclining Nude (Aurora),â 1907, one from the Baltimore Museum of Art, the other from the Raymond and Patsy Nasher collection, Dallas.
14b â Reclining Nude (Aurora) â
In contrast to the passive nudes popular in the Paris Salons of the day, Matisseâs âReclining Nude (Aurora),â 1907 is bold, voluptuous and sexual. These overlapped laser-scanned computer models show a terracotta from the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden and a bronze from the Raymond and Patsy collection, Dallas.